Movement, Development and Intervention in the International Relations of the Middle East
11.30 – 13.30
Chair: Chuck Thiessen, Coventry University
The Fundament of Indonesia-Middle East Relations
Siti Mutiah Setiawati, Gadjah Mada University and Luqman Hakim, Brawijaya University
Geographically Indonesia is a relatively distant from Middle Eastern countries. Nevertheless, th two worlds have been relatively closed since ages. Given the fact the group of people are different in the ethnic origin, interaction between people of these different worlds has been relatively closed. At the first stages people influx mostly originated from the Middle Eastern countries to Indonesia rather than other way a round. However, the last recent decades the world noted many more people migrated from Indonesia to the Middle Eastern countries. While at the first stages millions of Arab nationals spreading out to Indonesia, the last recent years millions Indonesia’s nationals flowing into different countries most of whom are in Saudi Arabia and many other Arab countries as migrant worker. Despite the changing pattern of migration, the close relationship between the worlds remain as if the relationships between the two worlds are built on natural mutual symbioses. This paper aims at describing reasons how religious and economic factors have played a significant role in tight sewing the relationships of the two worlds. How strong each of these two factors has influenced the nature of relationship between the two can be described, for example, by the fact Arab presence in Indonesia has been accepted as brother in religion meanwhile Indonesian has also been perceived in the same way. Amazingly, religious solidarity which has been successfully built among them has also become a strong foundation in the economic relationship.
Turkey’s Intervention in Somalia: (Dis)Trust between Turkish and Traditional Interveners
Chuck Thiessen, Coventry University and Alpaslan Özerdem
This paper explores the local effects of the expansion of Turkish influence in East Africa. In particular, this paper examines the dynamics of (dis)trust between Turkish and other international organisations in Somalia in the face of rapidly expanding Turkish intervention roles since 2011. Turkish organisations have effectively introduced innovative approaches to aid and development in Somalia that are, arguably, outpacing efforts by previously dominant international organisations, which have created tensions. This paper bases its findings upon face-to-face interviews with leaders from Turkish, US, EU and UN organisations in Mogadishu and Nairobi. The research methodology utilizes a comparison of Turkish and US/EU/UN perceptions in regards to two antecedent factors to trust – ‘ability’ and ‘integrity’. Situating its analysis in the debate over the contention of liberal intervention methodologies in contexts of conflict by local and emerging actors, this paper highlights that traditional ‘Western’ interveners view Turkish organisations as preferring to work in isolation and only marginally contributing to coordinating structures. Conversely, Turkish organizations view traditional ‘Western’ interveners as self-interested, ineffective and unreasonably constrained by security protocols. Consequently, the conclusions will explore how such a (dis)trusting environment can be interpreted for the future of emerging-traditional intervener relationships in Somalia and elsewhere.